MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA & WEST INDIES.
THE CITIZENS ATLAS
John Bartholomew & Co. Edin.r
Colour lithograph printed map with inset of Panama Canal (Abandoned).
Construction of the canal began with a French based international company in 1881 but increasing mortality rates (estimated in 1889 at over 22,000), and financial and engineering problems resulted in the abandonment of the project in 1889. The United States took over the project in 1904 and the canal was opened in 1913.